Understanding vulnerabilities of ecological systems and human communities under climate and land use change and implementing adaptation strategies is remarkably challenging. The goal of this work is to develop and implement tools to conduct vulnerability assessments of ecological response to climate and land use change at spatial scales relevant to human adaptation to these changes. Specific objectives are as follows. 1. Build capacity for global change assessment by adopting/developing an integrated set of simulation and/or statistical models that allow assessment of ecological response to climate and land use change at small watershed, greater ecosystem, and regional spatial scales. 2. Apply the models to hindcast and forecast snowpack, runoff, primary productivity, fire, key ecological system types, and select individual native and pest species under climate and land use change. 3. Better empower public land managers to understand and manage under global change through collaboration on using model results to assess ecological vulnerability to climate and land use change and developing adaptation and management strategies. 4. Educate University students and the citizens of Montana on ecological vulnerability to climate and land use change through two symposia conducted across the state.